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The Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival , for instance, was postponed to October and the fairgrounds where it is normally held was turned into a medical center.
Throughout March and early April, several state, city, and county governments imposed "stay at home" quarantines on their populations to stem the spread of the virus.
Administration officials warned on March 19 that the number of cases would begin to rise sharply as the country's testing capacity substantially increased to 50, to 70, tests per day.
The coronavirus outbreak has had varying effects on different areas of the U. Of the known deaths in the country before March 20, 94 occurred in the state of Washington , with 35 of those at one nursing home.
They included requiring temperature checks for anyone in a nursing home, symptom screenings, and requiring all nursing home personnel to wear face masks.
Trump also said that COVID patients should have their own buildings or units, and dedicated staffing teams.
According to the Global Health Security Index , an American-British assessment which ranks the health security capabilities in countries, the U.
The United States along with more than other countries have been subjected to pandemics and epidemics throughout their history, including the Spanish flu , the Asian flu , and the Hong Kong flu pandemics.
The United States Intelligence Community , in its annual Worldwide Threat Assessment report of and , said if a related coronavirus were "to acquire efficient human-to-human transmissibility", it would have "pandemic potential".
The Worldwide Threat Assessment also said new types of microbes that are "easily transmissible between humans" remain "a major threat".
In January , the U. New York City, for instance, took preparatory steps more than a decade ago, but then discontinued them in favor of other priorities.
A number of organizations in the U. Since it has tried to produce a platform approach for dealing with emerging epidemic diseases which would enable rapid vaccine development and immunity research in response to outbreaks.
Bush, the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority a division of the Department of Health and Human Services "estimated that an additional 70, [ventilators] would be required in a moderate influenza pandemic"; a contract was let and work started, but no ventilators were ever delivered.
In , outgoing Obama administration officials briefed incoming Trump administration officials on how to respond to pandemics by using simulated scenarios.
The Trump administration simulated a series of pandemic outbreaks from China in and found that the U. President Trump responded to the simulation with an executive order to increase the availability and quality of flu vaccines, and the administration later increased funding for the pandemic threats program of the Department of Health and Human Services HHS.
Despite these reports, briefings, and exercises, President Trump commented in March , "Nobody knew there would be a pandemic or epidemic of this proportion.
It's an unforeseen problem. What a problem. Came out of nowhere. In May , National Security Advisor John Bolton reorganized the executive branch's United States National Security Council NSC , largely merging the group responsible for global health security and biodefense —established by the Obama administration following the ebola epidemic —into a bigger group responsible for counter-proliferation and biodefense.
Along with the reorganization, the leader of the global health security and biodefense group, Rear Admiral Timothy Ziemer , left to join another federal agency, while Tim Morrison became the leader of the combined group.
After the coronavirus outbreak, reporters repeatedly asked Trump about this reorganization, and Trump provided conflicting responses.
On March 6, when asked at a press briefing if he would "rethink" the choice not to have a pandemic preparation office, Trump implied that the reorganization had been a reasonable choice at the time because "you can never really think [a pandemic] is going to happen Disbanding, no, I don't know anything about it It's the administration, perhaps they do that, let people go Bossert had helped to create the Trump administration's biodefense plans, and it was his responsibility to coordinate the government's response in the event of a biological crisis.
Brown , took over the biodefense responsibilities of the DHS. Bloomberg News reported in January that biodefense was by then a "less prominent" part of the Homeland Security Advisor's responsibilities.
The Washington Post reported in March that the White House would not confirm the identity of Borio's replacement. Reuters reported in March that the Trump administration had in the years before the coronavirus outbreak drastically reduced the number of staff working in the Beijing office of the U.
CDC from 47 to According to Reuters, one of the staff eliminated in July was training Chinese field epidemiologists to respond to disease outbreaks at their hotbeds.
CDC acknowledged that the report was true. Department of Agriculture ; Reuters reported that the position oversaw an animal disease monitoring program.
The Trump Administration also ended funding for the PREDICT pandemic early-warning program in China, which trained and supported staff in 60 foreign laboratories, with field work ceasing September Though federal reports had called for such a project since , the ARA contract wasn't signed until , and missed its month completion deadline, resulting in the pandemic reaching the United States before the design was ready.
Previous respiratory epidemics and government planning indicated a need for a stockpile of ventilators that were easier for less-trained medical personnel to use.
The government ordered 10, ventilators in September , with a mid deadline for the first deliveries and a deadline of to complete all 10, Despite the start of the epidemic in December, the capacity of the company to have produced enough to fill the full order, and the ability of the government to force faster production, the government did not reach an agreement with Philips for accelerated delivery until March 10, Compared to the small amount of money spent on recommended supplies for a pandemic, billions of dollars had been spent by the Strategic National Stockpile to create and store a vaccine for anthrax , and enough smallpox inoculations for the entire country.
In , the NSC laid out pandemic strategies and recommendations including, moving swiftly to fully detect potential outbreaks, securing supplemental funding, considering invoking the Defense Production Act , and ensuring sufficient protective equipment available for healthcare workers.
The Trump administration was briefed on it in , but declined to make it official policy. At that time, a number of U. Boeing announced a donation of , medical masks to help address China's supply shortages,  while the United Church of Christ UCC and American Baptist Churches USA joined an ecumenical effort of American churches to provide much-needed medical supplies to China.
The U. State Department also took steps to help China. Deputy Secretary of State Steve Biegun offered America's "deepest compassion" to the Chinese as the State Department organized a "robust effort to help the Chinese people get their arms around this outbreak".
Beyond identifying whether a person is currently infected, coronavirus testing helps health professionals ascertain how bad the epidemic is and where it is worst.
While the WHO opted to use an approach developed by Germany to test for coronavirus, the United States developed its own testing approach.
The German testing method was made public on January 13, and the American testing method was made public on January The WHO did not offer any test kits to the U.
CDC produced , coronavirus tests, but soon it was discovered that many were defective and gave inaccurate readings.
The initial criteria were a people who had recently traveled to certain countries affected by the outbreak, or b people with respiratory illness serious enough to require hospitalization, or c people who have been in contact with a person confirmed to have coronavirus.
The United States had a slow start in widespread coronavirus testing. They quickly found a teenager infected with coronavirus of unknown origin, newly indicating that an outbreak had already been occurring in Washington for the past six weeks.
State regulators stopped these researchers' testing on March 2, although the testing later resumed through the creation of the Seattle Coronavirus Assessment Network.
On March 5, Vice President Mike Pence , the leader of the coronavirus response team, acknowledged that "we don't have enough tests" to meet the predicted future demand; this announcement came only three days after FDA commissioner Stephen Hahn committed to producing nearly a million tests by that week.
S had tested fewer than 10, people. By mid-March, the U. By March 12, all 50 states were able to perform tests, with a doctor's approval, either from the CDC or local commercial lab.
These measures included the appointment of Admiral Brett Giroir of the U. Public Health Service to oversee testing, funding for two companies developing rapid tests, and a hotline to help labs find needed supplies.
On March 13, drive-through testing in the U. A lack of supplies had already forced the closure of drive-through testing in seven states.
In a March 13 press conference, the Trump administration announced a campaign to conduct tests in retail store parking lots across the country,  but this was not widely implemented.
By March 30, more than a million people had been tested,  but not all the people showing symptoms were being tested.
During the weeks of April 6 and 13, the U. Building up both testing and surveillance capacity are important to re-opening the economy; the purpose of social distancing is to buy time for such capacity-building.
The capacity has been hampered by shortages of reagents, shortages of test kits components like nasal swabs, shortages of protective gear for health workers, limited laboratory workers and equipment, and the federal government's limited interventions to solve shortages, instead leaving the issue to the free market, causing states and hospitals to compete with each other for supplies.
By early May, the U. By June 26, , Dr. Anthony Fauci was publicizing pooled testing as a way to speed up testing by a factor of 10 —from 0.
They will remain under state and local control. Brett Giroir , the Assistant Secretary for Health , described the original community-based testing program as having become "antiquated.
There is currently no drug approved for treating COVID either as a therapy or a vaccine, nor is there any clear evidence COVID infection leads to immunity although experts assume it does for some period.
The antibody neutralizes the coronavirus infection from a person's body. The laboratory called it a "significant breakthrough", which would be patented and then mass-produced.
In April , the CDC began testing blood samples to determine if a person has been exposed to the virus, even without showing symptoms, which could provide information about immunity.
Scott Gottlieb and Mark McClellan have called for the FDA to develop therapeutics and vaccines that would be exempt from some regulatory requirements.
A small test in France had apparently given good results  and they were being tested in a European Union-wide clinical trial.
While there is evidence that the drug has been effective in preventing or treating coronavirus infections, Australian experts advised before June 4, against its use outside of a clinical trial.
There is no vaccine for coronavirus as of July , however, research is ongoing in a number of countries to create one. Researchers would then have a large enough sampling to see if the vaccine works.
If successful, the next massive challenge would be making enough vaccines. By March 18, tests had begun with dozens of volunteers in Seattle, Washington, which was sponsored by the U.
Similar safety trials of other coronavirus vaccines will begin soon in the U. An unclassified Army briefing document, prepared February 3, on the coronavirus projected that "between 80, and , could die".
The estimates also correctly said asymptomatic people could "easily" transmit the virus, that military forces could be tasked with providing logistics and medical support to civilians, including "provid[ing] PPE N Face Mask, Eye Protection, and Gloves to evacuees, staff, and DoD personnel".
The officials, including HHS secretary Alex Azar, "didn't need emergency funding, that they would be able to handle it within existing appropriations," Senator Chris Murphy recalled.
Customs and Border Protection showed a steady flow of the medical equipment needed to treat the coronavirus being shipped abroad as recently as March Some states had immediate needs for ventilators; hospitals in New York City, for example, ran out.
Rick Bright , a federal immunologist and whistleblower testified in May that the federal government did not take proper action to acquire the needed supplies.
Medical organizations, such as the American Medical Association and American Nurses Association implored Trump to obtain medical supplies, because they were "urgently needed".
During this period, hospitals in the U. Department of Health and Human Services released a report regarding their March 23—27 survey of hospitals.
The hospitals also reported "widespread shortages of PPE" and "changing and sometimes inconsistent guidance from federal, state and local authorities".
Later he called the report "Another Fake Dossier! In early April, there was a widespread shortage of PPE, including masks, gloves, gowns, and sanitizing products.
By March 26, the United States, with the world's third largest population, surpassed China and Italy as the country with the highest number of confirmed cases in the world.
Comparatively, Spain's mortality rate was Deborah Birx pointed out the nation's low mortality rate during a White House coronavirus briefing.
Most nursing homes did not have easy access to testing, making the actual number unknown. In counting actual confirmed cases, some have questioned the reliability of totals reported by different countries.
Measuring rates reported by countries such as China or Iran have been questioned as potentially inaccurate. After a group of epidemiologists requested revisions in how the CDC counts cases and deaths, the CDC in mid-April updated its guidance for counting COVID cases and deaths to include both confirmed and probable ones, although each state can still determine what to report.
According to an excess mortality analysis of seven of the worst-affected states, there are an additional 9, deaths than expected from prior years which are not explained by official reported coronavirus mortality statistics.
Excess mortality is higher than these figures because some death certificates have yet to be processed and reported.
Trump administration officials were briefed to the coronavirus outbreak in China on January 3, On January 27, then-acting chief of staff Mick Mulvaney convened a meeting with White House aides to draw greater attention to the virus among senior officials.
FEMA was put in charge of procuring medical supplies on March The officials said that the CDC was not trusted by the White House and had "been muzzled", with their post-March recommendations "watered down".
In previous administrations, they were treated as "scientists", but for the Trump administration, "if the science that we are offering up contradicts a specific policy goal, then we are the problem.
In early May, President Trump proposed that the coronavirus task force should be phased out, to accommodate another group centered on reopening the economy.
Amid a backlash, Trump publicly stated that the coronavirus task force would continue on "indefinitely".
On January 31, three major U. The immediate family members of U. This was the first quarantine order the U.
After the restrictions began, almost 40, people arrived in the U. Following the China-related restrictions, the Trump administration imposed other restrictions from weeks later:.
The WHO on January 30 warned that "all countries should be prepared for containment, including active surveillance, early detection, isolation and case management, contact tracing and prevention of onward spread" of the virus.
Six cities believed to be high-risk were selected for early "sentinel surveillance" to try to detect the virus in patients who did not meet CDC guidelines for testing; those cities were Chicago, New York, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle and Honolulu.
Very few tests were successfully completed within a five-week window. Once testing showed the disease was spreading among those without travel-related risk factors, public officials in California began to issue "stay at home" orders; it would be at least a week before similar orders were issued in other parts of the country.
At a White House press briefing on April 1, Dr. Anthony S. Fauci said that, even though he expected social distancing rules can eventually be relaxed even before the availability of a vaccine, a vaccine will still be necessary to end the pandemic.
As part of the early efforts to contain and mitigate the pandemic within the United States, Surgeon General Jerome Adams announced in early March that local leaders would soon have to consider whether to cancel large gatherings, consider telework policies, and close schools.
On March 16, Trump announced "15 Days to Slow the Spread"—a series of guidelines based on CDC recommendations on topics such as physical distancing, self-isolation, and protecting those at high risk.
The government also recommended closing schools and avoiding gatherings of more than ten people.
One month later, epidemiologists Britta Jewell and Nicholas Jewell estimated that, had social distancing policies been implemented just two weeks earlier, U.
By March 21, governors in New York, California and other large states had ordered most businesses to close and for people to stay inside, with limited exceptions.
The order in New York, for instance, exempts financial institutions, some retailers, pharmacies, hospitals, manufacturing plants and transportation companies, among others.
It placed a ban on non-essential gatherings of any size and for any reason. On March 28, the president said he had decided not to enact a tri-state lockdown of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut, after having publicly suggested earlier in the day he was considering such a move; instead he ordered the CDC to issue a travel advisory suggesting voluntary travel limitations in these states.
Buildings normally used for sports and entertainment were transformed into field hospitals. On March 31, Birx reiterated the projection of 1.
The CDC issued a similar recommendation on April 3. Health officials have generally advised against the use of medical-grade PPE such as surgical masks and respirators by the general public, as they should be saved for healthcare personnel due to shortages.
In early May, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington predicted that the American death toll would reach , by early August.
It provides paid emergency leave and food assistance be provided to affected employees, along with free testing.
The expert witnesses were Dr. Stephen Hahn of the FDA. On March 13, , Democratic House Representatives Ro Khanna and Tim Ryan introduced legislation to provide payments to low-income citizens during the crisis via an earned income tax credit.
President Trump has floated using the low interest rates to invest in infrastructure , including roads, bridges, and tunnels but specifically excluding the initiatives of the Democratic Party 's Green New Deal.
Existing aid to states was restricted to specific programs, mostly direct costs related to the pandemic, which faced delays being disbursed,  and some of which may need to be returned due to restrictions on how it could be spent.
On May 5, New York representative Carolyn Maloney introduced a bill in the House which would cancel the student loan debt of healthcare workers.
On May 29, Mitch McConnell said that a fourth and final relief bill would be decided on in about a month. He cited relief for the unemployed and "kids, jobs and healthcare" as focal points.
On March 3, , the Federal Reserve lowered target interest rates from 1. On March 11, during his Oval Office address, Trump announced that he had requested a number of other policy changes:.
On March 15, the Federal Reserve cut their target interest rate again to a range of 0. It encouraged the same for non-federal loans, and included a pass-through provision for landlords to grant forbearance to renters who lost income.
On March 20, Trump announced that the Department of Education would not be enforcing standardized testing for Trump had also instructed to waive all federally held student loans for the next 60 days, which could be extended if needed.
On March 22, Trump announced that he had directed FEMA to build four large medical stations with 1, beds for New York, eight large medical stations with 2, beds for California, and three large medical stations and four small medical stations with 1, beds for the State of Washington.
On March 23, the Federal Reserve announced large-scale expansion of quantitative easing , with no specific upper limit, and reactivation of the Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility.
This injects newly created money into a variety of financial markets including corporate bonds , exchange-traded funds , small business loans , mortgage-backed securities , student loans, auto loans , and credit card loans.
The Fed also lowered its repurchase agreement interest rate from 0. In January , President Trump disregarded warnings from his administration's officials about the threat the virus posed to the United States in favor of the country's economic considerations.
On March 11, , Trump gave an oval office address where he announced an imminent travel ban between Europe and the United States.
On the other hand, Hladnik studies three popular novels of the late 19th century that warned Slovenes not to immigrate to the dangerous new world of the United States.
Jewish American writer Anzia Yezierska wrote her novel Bread Givers to explore such themes as Russian-Jewish immigration in the early 20th century, the tension between Old and New World Yiddish culture, and women's experience of immigration.
A well established author Yezierska focused on the Jewish struggle to escape the ghetto and enter middle- and upper-class America.
In the novel, the heroine, Sara Smolinsky, escape from New York City's "down-town ghetto" by breaking tradition.
She quits her job at the family store and soon becomes engaged to a rich real-estate magnate. She graduates college and takes a high-prestige job teaching public school.
Finally Sara restores her broken links to family and religion. The author emphasizes the authenticity of the experiences as depicted although he did change names.
The show is based on the story of Harelik's grandparents, Matleh and Haskell Harelik, who traveled to Galveston, Texas in In their documentary How Democracy Works Now: Twelve Stories , filmmakers Shari Robertson and Michael Camerini examine the American political system through the lens of immigration reform from to Since the debut of the first five films, the series has become an important resource for advocates, policy-makers and educators.
That film series premiered nearly a decade after the filmmakers' landmark documentary film Well-Founded Fear which provided a behind-the-scenes look at the process for seeking asylum in the United States.
That film still marks the only time that a film-crew was privy to the private proceedings at the U. Immigration and Naturalization Service INS , where individual asylum officers ponder the often life-or-death fate of immigrants seeking asylum.
The first, dominant in the 19th century, treated immigrants as in transition; in other words, as prospective citizens.
As soon as people declared their intention to become citizens, they received multiple low-cost benefits, including the eligibility for free homesteads in the Homestead Act of [ clarification needed ] , and in many states, the right to vote.
The goal was to make the country more attractive, so large numbers of farmers and skilled craftsmen would settle new lands.
By the s, a second approach took over, treating newcomers as "immigrants by contract". An implicit deal existed where immigrants who were literate and could earn their own living were permitted in restricted numbers.
Once in the United States, they would have limited legal rights, but were not allowed to vote until they became citizens, and would not be eligible for the New Deal government benefits available in the s.
The third and more recent policy [ when? An immigrant who applies for citizenship as soon as permitted, has a long history of working in the United States, and has significant family ties, is more deeply affiliated and can expect better treatment.
The American Dream is the belief that through hard work and determination, any United States immigrant can achieve a better life, usually in terms of financial prosperity and enhanced personal freedom of choice.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: History of immigration to the United States. Main article: Asylum in the United States.
See also: United States immigration statistics. Asia Africa Europe 7. Australia and Oceania 0. Unknown 0. See also: List of U.
United States and its territories. Main article: Economic impact of illegal immigrants in the United States. Main article: Immigration policies of American labor unions.
See also: Immigration reform and Nativism politics. Main article: Immigrant health care in the United States.
Further information: Education of immigrants in the United States. Main article: Immigration detention in the United States.
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